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Citation Style Guide: APA

This guide provides citation and bibliography assistance. Includes APA, MLA, and Chicago style examples.

Avoiding Plagiarism Using APA Style

  • Ensure that ideas are not stolen.
  • Attribute direct quotes.
  • Cite your sources correctly.

Citing Sources in APA style and Managing References

Click here for the locations of the physical copies available in the library:

Citing PRINT Sources, APA

For examples not listed here, see print version of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed,
at the 1st floor reference center or the Reserves Desk at call number BF76.7.P83 2010.

Reference Type

In Reference List
In-Text Citation
Book: 1 Author

Batavia, M. (2006). Contraindications in physical rehabilitation: Doing no harm. St. Louis, MO: Saunders Elsevier.

 

(Batavia, 2006)
Book: 3 to 6 Authors

Hoskins, C. N., Haber, J., & Budin, W. C. (2001). Breast cancer: Journey to recovery. New York: Springer Publishing Company.

(Hoskins, Haber, & Budin, 2001) first citation

(Hoskins et al., 2001) subsequent citations

Book: Editor, Translator, or Compiler (instead of author)

Mezey, M. D. (Ed.). (2001). The encyclopedia of elder care: The comprehensive resource on geriatric and social care. New York: Springer Publishing Company.

 

(Mezey, 2001)
Book: Chapter, Introduction, Preface, Foreword, Afterword, Encyclopedia Entry

Mitty, E. L. (2001). Assisted living. In M. D. Mezey (Ed.), The encyclopedia of elder care: The comprehensive resource on geriatric and social care (pp. 73-75). New York: Springer Publishing Company.

 

(Mitty, 2001)
Journal Article, 1 Author

Rosenfeld, P. (2005). Women in green: The contributions of Hadassah nursing to immigrant and refugee health in pre-state and the early years of the State of Israel. Nursing History Review, 13, 101-119.

 

(Rosenfeld, 2005)
Journal Article, 2 Authors

Collard, S., & Tempelman-Kluit, N. (2006). The other way in: Goal-based library content through CMS. Internet Reference Services Quarterly, 11(4), 55-68.

 

(Collard & Tempelman-Kluit, 2006)
Journal Article, 3-7 Authors

Jacobs, J., Kahana, M. J., Ekstrom, A. D., & Fried, I. (2007). Brain oscillations control timing of single-neuron activity in humans. The Journal of Neuroscience, 27(14), 3839-3844.

(Jacobs, Kahana, Ekstrom, & Fried, 2007) first citation

(Jacobs et al., 2007) subsequent citations

Popular Magazine Article

Hertzberg, H. (2008, December). Eight is enough. The New Yorker, 84(39), 27.

 

(Hertzberg, 2008)
Newspaper Article, 1 author

Rich, F. (2008, November 9). It still felt good the morning after. The New York Times, p. WK9.

 

(Rich, 2008)
Newspaper Article, no author

If you were stranded on an island. (2008, September 30). The New York Times, p. F5.

 

("If you were stranded," 2008)
ERIC document

McNulty, T. (Ed.). (1999). Accessible libraries on campus: A practical guide for the creation of disability-friendly libraries. Chicago, IL: Association of College and Research Libraries. (ED433805)

(McNulty, 1999)
Book Review

Zbar, R. I. S. (1995). Autobiography of a face [Review of the book Autobiography of a face, by L. Grealy]. The New England Journal of Medicine, 333(14), 949.

 

(Zbar, 1995)
Thesis or Dissertation

Kitzmiller, E. M. (2012). The roots of educational inequality: Germantown high school, 1907--2011. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

 

(Kitzmiller, 2012)
Conference or Meeting Paper

Peters, H. M. (2002). Milton S. Hershey - one of a kind, founder of the Hershey Chocolate Company. Abstracts of papers of the American Chemical Society, 223, U367.

 

(Peters, 2002)
Audiovisual Materials

Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation (Producer), & Wise, R. (Director). (2000). The sound of music [Motion Picture]. USA: Twentieth Century Fox Home Entertainment.

 

(Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation & Wise, 2000)
Statute

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, 42 U.S.C. § 18001 (2010).

OR

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, 42 U.S.C. § 18001 et seq. (2010).

(EXPLANATION: 42 is the title number, 18001 is the first section of the law. "et seq." means the act includes other sections that follow the initial section.   Cited is the 2010 edition of the Code.)

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (2010)

OR

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010

Citing ELECTRONIC Sources, APA

For examples not listed here, see print version of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed,
at the 1st floor reference center or the Reserves Desk at call number BF76.7.P83 2010.

Supplement, APA Style Guide to Electronic References, is available (NYU only).

Reference Type In Reference List In-Text Citation
Web Page Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014, April 2). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014)
Web Page, undated Dvoretsky, D. P. (n.d.). History: Pavlov Institute of Physiology of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Retrieved January 27, 2007, from http://www.infran.ru/history_eng.htm (Dvoretsky, n.d.)
Online video BioScience Laboratories  (2009, July 22). BioScience Laboratories Glove Juice Sampling Procedure for ASTM E1174 E1115 [Video file]. Retrieved from http://youtu.be/eU6EkstmwI4 (BioScience Laboratories, 2009)
Audio podcast Johns Hopkins Medicine. (Producer). (n.d.). New medical school curriculum [Audio podcast]. Retrieved August 9, 2010, from http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/armstrongbuilding/audio_files/curriculumpodfinal.mp3 (Johns Hopkins Medicine, n.d.)
TED talk

Palmer, A. (2013, February). Amanda Palmer: The art of asking [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.ted.com/talks/amanda_palmer_the_art_of_asking

 

Palmer (2013) or (Palmer, 2013)
Electronic book, 1 author, retrieved from library database Didion, J. (2005). Year of magical thinking. Available from ebrary database. (Didion, 2005)

Joanna Briggs EBP Database,
Best Practice  Information Sheets, Systematic Reviews & Technical Reports

 

Author, A. A. (YEAR). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume#(issue#), page-page. Retrieved from [URL]

Joanna Briggs Institute. (2009). The Management of Nipple Pain and/or Trauma Associated with Breastfeeding. Best Practice: evidence-based information sheets for health professionals, 13(4), 1-4. Retrieved from  https://arch.library.nyu.edu/databases/proxy/NYU04719

(Joanna Briggs Institute, 2009)

 

Joanna Briggs Institute EBP Database
Consumer Information Sheets, Evidence Summaries, Recommended Practices

Author, A. A. (Year). Title: Subtitle [Type of resource]. Retrieved from [URL].

Sartore, G. (2016). Influenza Vaccination of Health Care Workers: Older People’s Health [Evidence summaries]. Retrieved from  https://arch.library.nyu.edu/databases/proxy/NYU04719

(Sartore, 2016)

Electronic book, 1 author, retrieved from web Pollan, M. (2006). The omnivore's dilemma: A natural history of four meals. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=Qh7dkdVsbDkC&lpg=PP1&dq=subject%3A%22Health%20%26%20Fitness%22&as_brr=3&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=false (Pollan, 2007)
Electronic book, 1 author, retrieved from e-book reader Oshinsky, D. M. (2005). Polio: An American story [Kindle edition]. Available from Amazon.com (Oshinsky, 2005)
Electronic Book:
2 authors, retrieved from library database
Kreiman, J., & Van Lancker Sidtis, D. (2011). Foundations of Voice Studies: An Interdisciplinary approach to Voice Production and Perception. Available from ebrary database. (Kreiman & Van Lancker Sidtis, 2011)
Electronic Book: Editor, Translator, or Compiler (instead of author) Mezey, M. D., Cassel, C. K., Bottrell, M. M., Hyer, K., Howe, J. L., & Fulmer, T. T. (Eds.). (2002). Ethical patient care: A casebook for geriatric health care teams. Available from ebrary database. (Mezey, Cassel, Bottrell, Hyer, Howe, & Fulmer, 2002) first citation (Mezey et al., 2002) subsequent citations
Electronic Book: Chapter, Introduction, Preface, Foreword, Afterword, Encyclopedia Entry with one author

Oshinsky, D. (2010). Polio. In A. W. Artenstein (Ed.), Vaccines: A Biography (pp. 207–221). Springer New York. Available from http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1108-7_12

(Oshinsky, 2010)
Electronic Book: Chapter, Introduction, Preface, Foreword, Afterword, Encyclopedia Entry with two or more authors

Borody, T.J., Leis, S., Pang, G., & Wettstein, A.R. (2013). Fecal microbiota transplantation in the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. In T.W. Post, P. Rutgeerts, & S. Grover (Eds.), UptoDate. Available from https://arch.library.nyu.edu/databases/proxy/NYU04665

[use "Available from" to indicate that the URL will lead users to a download site rather than directly to the chapter.]

(Borody, Leis, Pang & Wettstein, 2013)
Online Encyclopedia with byline (Nursing Reference Center) March, P. D., & Caple, C. (2011). Spiritual needs of hospitalized patients. Available from http://web.ebscohost.com/nrc/detail?sid=85849bd9-bbcc-4d9b-a1bd-076663a91acf%40sessionmgr10&vid=5&hid=15&bdata=JnNpdGU9bnJjLWxpdmU%3d#db=nrc&AN=5000000657 (March & Caple, 2011)
Electronic Journal Article, 1 Author, DOI assigned Bear-Lehman, J. (2002). A word about qualitative research. Journal of Hand Therapy, 15(1), 85-86. doi:10.1053/hanthe.2002.v15.01585 (Bear-Lehman, 2002)
Electronic Journal Article, 1 Author, without DOI assigned Fulmer, T. (2007). How to try this: Fulmer SPICES. AJN, American Journal of Nursing 107(10), 40-48. Retrieved from http://www.nursingcenter.com/pdf.asp?AID=743877 (Fulmer, 2007)
Electronic Journal 1-2 authors, DOI assigned Ellis, E. L., & Whatley, K. M. (2008). The evolution of critical thinking skills in library instruction, 1986-2006: A selected and annotated bibliography and review of selected programs. College & Undergraduate Libraries, 15 (1/2), 5-20. doi:10.1080/10691310802176665 (Ellis & Whatley, 2008)
Electronic Journal Article, 1-2 Authors, without DOI assigned Dobal, M. T., & Torkelson, D. J. (2004). Making decisions about sexual rights in psychiatric facilities. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 18 (2), 68-74. Available from http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S088394170400022 (Dobal & Torkelson, 2004)
Electronic Popular Magazine Article, retrieved from library database Hertzberg, H. (2008, December). Eight is enough. The New Yorker,84(39), 27. Available from ProQuest Research Library database. (Hertzberg, 2008)
Electronic Newspaper Article, 1 author, retrieved from library database Brody, J. (2008, December 16). Query for aging patients: How much do you drink? >The New York Times, p. D7. Available from ProQuest Banking Information Source database. (Brody, 2008)
Newspaper Article, retrieved from the web Brody, J. (2008, December 16). Query for aging patients: How much do you drink? The New York Times. (Brody, 2008)
Electronic Newspaper Article, no author, retrieved from library database Editorial: Getting the bed bugs out. [Editorial]. (2009, January 14). The New York Times, p. A32. Available from ProQuest Banking Information Source database. ("Getting the bed bugs out," 2009)
Thesis retrieved from library database Krainovich-Miller, B. (1988). Clinical validation of the nursing diagnosis of preoperative state anxiety Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University Teachers College). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses database. (Order No. 8824404) (Krainovich-Miller, 1988)
Data set Pew Hispanic Center. (2008). 2007 Hispanic Healthcare Survey [Data file and code book]. Available from Pew Hispanic Center Web site: http://pewhispanic.org/datasets/
[use "Available from" to indicate that the URL will lead users to a download site rather than directly to the data.]
(Pew Hispanic Center, 2008)
Graphic representation of data Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2005). [Interactive map showing percentage of respondents reporting "no" to, During the past month, did you participate in any physical activities?]. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Retrieved from http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/gisbrfss/default.aspx (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2005)
More about citing data sets below.    

Citing Data Sets Using APA Style

APA (American Psychological Association)

Point readers to raw data by providing a Web address (use "Retrieved from") or a general place that houses data sets on the site (use "Available from").

General format:

Author/Rightsholder. (Year). Title of data set (Version number) [Description of form]. Retrieved from http://

OR

Author/Rightsholder. (Year). Title of data set (Version number) [Description of form]. Location: Name of producer.
 

Examples:

United States Department of Housing and Urban Development. (2008). Indiana income limits [Data file]. Retrieved from http://www.huduser.org/Datasets/IL/IL08/in_fy2008.pdf

United Nations Statistics Division. (2008). Gender Info 2007. [Data file]. Retrieved from http://data.un.org/Data.aspx?d=GenderStat&f=inID%3a12

Economist Intelligence Unit. (2012). EIU CountryData. [Data file]. London: Economist Intelligence Unit.

Partially adapted from The Owl at Purdue. (2012). "APA Style: Reference List: Electronic Sources (Web Publications)." Retrieved from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/10/

Use the Preferred Citation from Your Data Source

Some data providers, such as archives or some government agencies, prefer that you cite their data a certain way. Look around on their webpage for clues.

For example, ICPSR provides a citation for each dataset on the Study Description page:

In this case, you can just copy and paste the citation right into your bibliography!