Evidence-Based Nursing (EBN) is defined as:
"the application of valid, relevant, research-based information in nurse decision-making...used alongside our knowledge of our patients (their symptoms, diagnoses, and expressed preferences) and the context in which the decision is taking place (including the care setting and available resources), and in processing this information we use our expertise and judgement" (Cullum, 2008).
Only a small percentage of the published literature contains evidence that is ready for clinical application. It is estimated that only 1 in 5000 ideas eventually makes it through all of the trials and the research stages to produce evidence with clinical outcomes (McKibbon, Wilczynski, Eady, & Marks, 2009).
A literature search for the highest level of evidence -- one that applies more rigorous criteria -- filters for articles that use higher quality methodologies.
Evidence is hierarchical and spans a range of publication types:
Models of EBP describe the evidence-based process in 5 steps:
Retrieval of published research-based evidence begins with Step 1: Develop an answerable question.
Click on the Forward button to go to Module 2.2
Cullum, N. (2008). Evidence-based nursing: An introduction. Oxford: Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub./BMJ Journals/RCN Pub.
Flemming, K. (1998). Asking answerable questions. Evidence-Based Nursing, 1 (2), 36–37.
McKibbon, A., Wilczynski, N., Eady, A., & Marks, S. (2009). PDQ evidence-based principles and practice. (2nd ed.). Shelton, CT: People’s Medical Publishing House.
Melnyk, B. M., & Fineout-Overholt, E. (2010). Evidence-based practice in nursing and healthcare: A guide to best practice. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Understanding Research Study Designs (from the University of Minnesota)
Case Series and Case Reports
Case Control Studies
Randomized Controlled Studies
Double Blind Method