Rossiiskaia natsional'naia biblioteka pictorial collection (8,000 documents) includes photographs, engravings, lithographs, posters, advertisements documenting Russian history as seen by contemporaries.
Istoriia Rossii v fotografiiakh A photobank of about 71,000 Russian photographs from 1860-1999 with captions and a search engine. It is sponsored by Yandex and the the Russian Ministry of Culture.The photos come from museums, public archives, and personal collections.
Europeana has millions of items from a range of Europe's leading galleries, libraries, archives and museums. For images, enter Russia, Poland etc. in search box, and filter results by media type, image.
Digitized resources from U.S. libraries, universities, archives, and museums.
On the DPLA site search for "Russia," "Poland," etc., then under format select "image." Images from New York Public Library, National Archives at College Park, the Smithsonian, and more.