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Writing & Stylistics Guides

Citation Essentials

Academic Integrity is a core value at NYU Shanghai, which is why it is important to avoid plagiarizing by always citing your sources. The NYU Shanghai bulletin describes plagiarism as:

presenting others' work without adequate acknowledgement of its source, as though it were one’s own. Plagiarism is a form of fraud. We all stand on the shoulders of others, and we must give credit to the creators of the works that we incorporate into products that we call our own. Some examples of plagiarism:

  • a sequence of words incorporated without quotation marks
  • an unacknowledged passage paraphrased from another's work
  • the use of ideas, sound recordings, computer data or images created by others as though it were one’s own

Properly citing your sources not only protects you, but shows your respect for the scholars whose thoughts and research your are using.

Citation Style Guides

We have guides to help you with the following citation styles:

  • MLA (Modern Languages Association) 
  • Chicago Style
  • APA (American Psychological Association) 
  • Harvard Style

Below are some other general resources on citations & academic integrity.

Citing Chinese-Language Resources

If you are citing resources in languages other than English - particularly languages that use non-Roman alphabets - you might wonder when & how to include original scripts, translations, and transliterations in your citation.

The quick guide linked below introduces you to essential strategies for navigating the APA Manual  (7th edition), Chicago Manual of Style (17th edition), and MLA Handbook (9th edition). Each style has its own unique rules for navigating these situations; you will often need to combine more general rules for citing a particular source type with that manual's instructions for punctuation, capitalization, translation, transliteration, and inclusion of original scripts.

This resource is not exhaustive, and you should view this as a guide to help you navigate these style guides and make appropriate decisions when formatting citations in your own work.

Quick Guide Manual for Citing Chinese-Language Sources

Click here to open the Quick Guide on Citing Chinese Sources - this is a text-based Google Doc

Video Tutorial

Citing Images

APA, MLA, and the Chicago Manual of Style have different rules for how to treat images using captions, in-text references, footnotes, and in your bibliography. 

Quick Guide Manual for Citing Images

Click here to open the Quick Guide on Finding & Citing Images - this is a text-based Google Doc. This document provides introductory guidance for how to cite images in these main styles, including tips on inserting figures & tables with appropriate captions in your writing.

Citing Images in the Public Domain or with a CC License

Even if materials are available with a Creative Commons license or are in the public domain, you should still always cite materials in your research & projects. Whether you’re citing an image that is in the Public Domain, has a CC license, or is under copyright, NYU’s Scholarly Communications librarian has put together a fairly comprehensive guide on practices for citing images. This guide also includes more specific information on different types of Creative Commons licenses.

When considering whether you should or should not cite images that are from stock photo websites or are in the public domain, it is helpful to remember the purpose of these particular types of resources. Stock photos are available to be used for a variety of purposes, particularly non-educational ones, without requiring you to pay a licensing fee to use that image. The fact that photos in the Public Domain or with a CC0 License do not require a fee does not absolve you from the burden of citing these resources in your work, educational or otherwise.

Another useful tool to use when creating your attributions is this Open Attribution Builder. If you have found an image that doesn’t provide a formatted citation, or if you want to make sure your images all have uniformly-formatted citations, this is very useful.

If you’ve found an image, but you don’t know who created it, you should generate a citation/attribution that makes it possible for your reader to access the image, and for the creator to receive credit for their work: this might mean including a URL, the name of the website you, or the username of the uploader.

Inserting Images & Creating Captions

Microsoft Word allows you to create captions for figures & tables in your text. To insert captions in GoogleDocs, this workaround has proven useful.

Additional Resources